Climate, Trees, and Vegetation
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Climate, Trees, and Vegetation
Animals, Marine Life, Flowers, Shrubs and Herbs
extent of the Phoenician coast, and the great difference in the elevation
of its various parts, give it a great diversity of climate. Northern
Phoenicia is many degrees colder than southern; and the difference is
still more considerable between the coast tracts and the more elevated
portions of the mountain regions. The greatest heat is experienced in
the plain of Sharon, which is at once the most southern portion of
the country, and the part most remote from any hills of sufficient elevation
to exert an important influence on the temperature. Neither Carmel on
the north, nor the hills of Samaria on the east, produce any sensible
effect on the climate of the Sharon lowland. The cold in winter is very
moderate. Snow falls mainly on high elevations and if there is frost
it is short-lived, and does not penetrate into the ground.
climate of the coast, in the south, in the north
the coast tract is decidedly less hot than the region south of it, and
becomes cooler and cooler as we proceed northwards. Northern Phoenicia
enjoys a climate that is delightful, and in which it would be difficult
to suggest much improvement. The summer heat is scarcely ever too great,
the thermometer rarely exceeding 90º of Fahrenheit, and often
sinking below 70º. Refreshing showers of rain frequently fall,
and the breezes from the north, the east, and the south-east, coming
from high mountain tracts which are in part snow- clad, temper the heat
of the sun's rays and prevent it from being oppressive. The winter temperature
seldom descends much below 50º; and thus the orange, the lemon
and the date-palm flourish in the open air, and the gardens are bright
with flowers even in December and January. Snow falls occasionally,
but it rarely lies on the ground for more than a few days, and is scarcely
ever so much as a foot deep. On the other hand, rain is expected during
the winter-time, and the entire line of coast is visited for some months
with severe storms and gales, accompanied often by thunder and violent
rain, which strew the shore
with wrecks and turn even insignificant mountain streams into raging
torrents. The storms come chiefly from the west and north-west, quarters
to which the harbours on the coast are unfortunately open. Navigation
consequently suffers interruption; but when once the winter is past,
a season of tranquillity sets in, and for many months of the year--at
any rate from May to October--the barometer scarcely varies, the
sky is unclouded, and rain all but unknown.
of the more elevated regions
traveller mounts from the coast tract into the more elevated regions,
the climate sensibly changes. An hour's ride from the plains, when they
are most sultry, will bring him into a comparatively cool region, where
the dashing spray of the glacier streams is borne on the air, and from
time to time a breeze that is actually cold comes down from the mountain-tops.
Shade is abundant, for the rocks are often perpendicular, and overhand
the road in places, while the dense foliage of cedars, or pines, or
walnut-trees, forms an equally effectual screen against the sun's noonday
rays. In winter the uplands are, of course, cold. Severe weather prevails
in them from November to March; snow falls on all the high ground,
while it rains on the coast and in the lowlands; the passes are blocked;
and Lebanon and Bargylus replenish the icy stories which the summer's
heat has diminished.
productions of Phoenicia may be best considered under the several heads
of trees, shrubs, herbs, flowers, fruit-trees, and garden vegetables.
The chief trees were the palm-tree, the sycamore, the maritime pine,
and the plane in the lowlands; in the highlands the cedar, Aleppo pine,
oak, walnut, poplar, acacia, shumac, and carob. We have spoken of the
former abundance of the palm. At present it is found in comparatively
few places, and seldom in any considerable numbers. It grows singly,
or in groups of two or three, at various points of the coast from Tripolis
to Acre, but is only abundant in a few spots more towards the south,
as at Haifa, under Carmel, where "fine date-palms" are numerous
in the gardens, and at Jaffa, where travellers remark "a broad
belt of two or three miles of date-palms and orange-groves laden with
fruit." The wood was probably not much used as timber except
in the earliest times, since Lebanon afforded so many kinds of trees
much superior for building purposes. The date-palm was also valued for
its fruit, though the produce of the Phoenician groves can never have
been of a high quality.
or sycamine-fig, is a dark-foliaged tree, with a gnarled stem when it
is old; it grows either singly or in clumps, and much more resembles
in appearance the English oak than the terebinth does, which has been
so often compared to it. The stem is short, and sends forth wide lateral
branches forking out in all directions, which renders the tree very
easy to climb. It bears a small fig in great abundance, and probably
at all seasons, which, however, is "tasteless and woody,"
though eaten by the inhabitants. The sycamore is common along the Phoenician
lowland, but is a very tender tree and will not grow in the mountains.
common in Asia Minor, is not very frequent either in Phoenicia. It occurs,
however, on the middle course of the Litany, where it breaks through
the roots of Lebanon, and also in many of the valleys on the
western flank of the mountain. The maritime pine (/Pinus maritama/)
extends in forests here and there along the shore, and is found
of service in checking the advance of the sand dunes, which have a tendency
to encroach seriously on the cultivable soil.
upland trees the most common is the oak. There are three species of
oak in the country. The most prevalent is an evergreen oak (/Quercus
pseudococcifera/), sometimes mistaken by travellers for a holly, sometimes
for an ibex, which covers in a low dense bush many miles of the hilly
country everywhere, and occasionally becomes a large tree in the Lebanon
valleys, and on the flanks of Casius and Bargylus. Another common
oak is /Quercus Ægilops/, a much smaller and deciduous tree, very
stout-trunked, which grows in scattered groups on Carmel and elsewhere,
"giving a park-like appearance to the landscape." The
third kind is /Quercus infectoria/, a gall-oak, also deciduous, and
very conspicuous from the large number of bright, chestnut-coloured,
viscid galls which it bears, and which are now sometimes gathered for
the oak may be mentioned the walnut, which grows to a great size in
sheltered positions in the Lebanon range, both upon the eastern and
upon the western flank; the poplar, which is found both in the mountains
and in the low country, as especially about Beirut; the Aleppo pine
(/Pinus halepensis/), of which there are large woods in Carmel, Lebanon,
and Bargylus, while in Casius there is an enormous forest of them;
and the carob (/Ceratonia siliqua/), or locust-tree, a dense-foliaged
tree of a bright lucid green hue, which never grows in clumps or forms
woods, but appears as an isolated tree, rounded or oblong, and affords
the best possible shade. In the vicinity of Tyre are found also
large tamarisks, maples, sumachs, and acacias.
tree which is the glory of Phoenicia, and which was by far the most
valuable of all its vegetable productions, is, of course, the cedar.
Growing to an immense height, and attaining an enormous girth, it spreads
abroad its huge flat branches hither and thither, covering a vast space
of ground with its "shadowing shroud," and presenting
a most majestic and magnificent appearance. Its timber may not be of
first-rate quality, and there is some question whether it was really
used for the masts of their ships by the Phoenicians, but as building
material it was beyond a doubt most highly prized, answering sufficiently
for all the purposes required by architectural art, and at the same
time delighting the sense of smell by its aromatic odour. Solomon employed
it both for the Temple and for his own house; the AsSyrian kings
cut it and carried it to Nineveh; Herod the Great used it for the
vast additions that he made to Zerubbabel's temple; it was exported
to Egypt and Asia Minor; the Ephesian Greeks constructed of cedar, probably
of cedar from Lebanon, the roof of their famous temple of Diana.
At present the wealth of Lebanon in cedars is not great, but the four
hundred which form the grove near the source of the Kadisha, and the
many scattered cedar woods in other places, are to be viewed as remnants
of one great primeval forest, which originally covered all the upper
slopes on the western side, and was composed, if not exclusively, at
any rate predominantly, of cedars. Cultivation, the need of fuel,
and the wants of builders, have robbed the mountain of its primitive
bright green vest, and left it either bare rock or terraced garden;
but in the early times of Phoenicia, the true Lebanon cedar must undoubtedly
have been its chief forest tree, and have stood to it as the pine to
the Swiss Alps and the chestnut to the mountains of North Italy.
remarkable shrubs and fruit-trees
below the rank of trees, the most important are the lentisk (/Pistachia
lentiscus/), the bay, the arbutus (/A. andrachne/), the cypress, the
oleander, the myrtle, the juniper, the barberry, the styrax (/S. officinalis/),
the rhododendron, the bramble, the caper plant, the small-leaved holly,
the prickly pear, the honeysuckle, and the jasmine. Myrtle and rhododendron
grow luxuriantly on the flanks of Bargylus, and are more plentiful than
any other shrubs in that region. Eastern Lebanon has abundant scrub
of juniper and barberry; while on the western slopes their place
is taken by the bramble, the myrtle, and the clematis. The lentisk,
which rarely exceeds the size of a low bush, is conspicuous by its dark
evergreen leaves and numerous small red berries; the arbutus--not
our species, but a far lighter and more ornamental shrub, the /Arbutus
andrachne/--bears also a bright red fruit, which colours the thickets;
the styrax, famous for yielding the gum storax of commerce, grows towards
the east end of Carmel, and is a very large bush branching from the
ground, but never assuming the form of a tree; it has small downy leaves,
white flowers like orange blossoms, and round yellow fruit, pendulous
from slender stalks, like cherries. Travellers in Phoenicia do not
often mention the caper plant, but it was seen by Canon Tristram hanging
from the fissures of the rock, in the cleft of the Litany, amid
myrtle and bay and clematis. The small-leaved holly was noticed by Mr.
Walpole on the western flank of Bargylus. The prickly pear is not
a native of Asia, but has been introduced from the New World. It has
readily acclimatised itself, and is very generally employed, in Phoenicia,
as in the neighbouring countries, for hedges.
of Phoenicia are numerous, and grow most luxuriantly, but the majority
have no doubt been introduced from other countries, and the time of
their introduction is uncertain. Five, however, may be reckoned as either
indigenous or as cultivated at any rate from a remote antiquity--the
vine, the olive, the date-palm, the walnut, and the fig. The vine is
most widely spread. Vineyards cover large tracts in the vicinity of
all the towns; they climb up the sides of Carmel, Lebanon, and Bargylus,
hang upon the edge of precipices, and greet the traveller at every turn
in almost every region. The size of individual vines is extraordinary.
"Stephen Schultz states that in a village near Ptolemaïs (Acre)
he supped under a large vine, the stem of which measured a foot and
a half in diameter, its height being thirty feet; and that the whole
plant, supported on trellis, covered an area of fifty feet either way.
The bunches of grapes weighed from ten to twelve pounds and the berries
were like small plums." The olive in Phoenicia is at least
as old as the Exodus, for it was said of Asher, who was assigned the
more southern part of that country--"Let him be acceptable to his
brethren, and let him dip his foot in oil." Olives at the present
day clothe the slopes of Lebanon and Bargylus above the vine region,
and are carried upward almost to the very edge of the bare rock. They
yield largely, and produce an oil of an excellent character. Fine olive-groves
are also to be seen on Carmel, in the neighbourhood of Esfia. The
date-palm has already been spoken of as a tree, ornamenting the landscape
and furnishing timber of tolerable quality. As a fruit-tree it is not
greatly to be prized, since it is only about Haifa and Jaffa that it
produces dates, and those of no high repute. The walnut has all
the appearance of being indigenous in Lebanon, where it grows to a great
size, and bears abundance of fruit. The fig is also, almost certainly,
a native; it grows plentifully, not only in the orchards about towns,
but on the flanks of Lebanon, on Bargylus, and in the northern Phoenician
fruit-trees of the present day are the mulberry, the pomegranate, the
orange, the lemon, the lime, the peach, the apricot, the plum, the cherry,
the quince, the apple, the pear, the almond, the pistachio nut, and
the banana. The mulberry is cultivated largely on the Lebanon in
connection with the growth of silkworms, but is not valued as a fruit-tree.
The pomegranate is far less often seen, but it is grown in the gardens
about Saida, and the fruit has sometimes been an article of exportation.
The orange and lemon are among the commonest fruits, but are generally
regarded as comparatively late introductions. The lime is not often
noticed, but obtains mention in the work of Mr. Walpole. The peach
and apricot are for the most part standard trees, though sometimes trained
on trellises. They were perhaps derived from Mesopotamia or Persia,
but at what date it is quite impossible to conjecture. Apples, pears,
plums, cherries, quinces, are not unlikely to have been indigenous,
though of course the present species are the result of long and careful
cultivation. The same may be said of the almond and the pistachio nut.
The banana is a comparatively recent importation. It is grown along
the coast from Jaffa as far north as Tripolis, and yields a fruit which
is said to be of excellent quality.
Phoenicia may be pronounced a land of fruits. Hasselquist says,
that in his time Sidon grew pomegranates, apricots, figs, almonds, oranges,
lemons, and plums in such abundance as to furnish annually several shiploads
for export, while D'Arvieux adds to this list pears, peaches, cherries,
and bananas. Lebanon alone can furnish grapes, olives, mulberries,
figs, apples, apricots, walnuts, cherries, peaches, lemons, and oranges.
The coast tract adds pomegranates, limes, and bananas. It has been said
that Carmel, a portion of Phoenicia, is "the garden of Eden run
wild;" but the phrase might be fitly applied to the entire
Hajjar's beautiful garden in Brummana, Lebanon.
heard a thousand blended notes,
While in a grove I sate reclined,
In that sweet mood when pleasant thoughts
Bring sad thoughts to the mind.
flowers, and garden vegetables
possessing some value for man, Phoenicia produces sage, rosemary, lavender,
rue, and wormwood. Of flowers she has an extraordinary abundance.
In early spring (March and April) not only the plains, but the very
mountains, except where they consist of bare rock, are covered with
a variegated carpet of the loveliest hues from the floral wealth
scattered over them. Bulbous plants are especially numerous. Travellers
mention hyacinths, tulips, ranunculuses, gladioli, anemones, orchises,
crocuses of several kinds --blue and yellow and white, arums, amaryllises,
cyclamens, &c., besides heaths, jasmine, honeysuckle, clematis,
/multiflora/ roses, rhododendrons, oleander, myrtle, astragalus, hollyhocks,
convolvuli, valerian, red linum, pheasant's eye, guelder roses, antirrhinums,
chrysanthemums, blue campanulas, and mandrakes. The orchises include
"/Ophrys atrata/, with its bee-like lip, another like the spider
orchis, and a third like the man orchis;" the cyclamens are
especially beautiful, "nestling under every stone and lavish of
their loveliness with graceful tufts of blossoms varying in hue from
purest white to deepest purple pink." The multiflora rose is
not common, but where it grows "covers the banks of streams with
a sheet of blossom;" the oleanders fringe their waters with
a line of ruby red; the mandrake (/Mandragora officinalis/) is "one
of the most striking plants of the country, with its flat disk of very
broad primrose-like leaves, and its central bunch of dark blue bell-shaped
blossom." Ferns also abound, and among them is the delicate
garden vegetables grown at the present day are melons, cucumbers, gourds,
pumpkins, turnips, carrots, and radishes. The kinds of grain most
commonly cultivated are wheat, barley, millet, and maize. There is also
an extensive cultivation of tobacco, indigo, and cotton, which have
been introduced from abroad in comparatively modern times. Oil, silk,
and fruits are, however, still among the chief articles of export; and
the present wealth of the country is attributable mainly to its groves
and orchards, its olives, mulberries, figs, lemons, and oranges.
of Phoenicia has not until recently attracted very much attention. At
present the list of land animals known to inhabit it is short, including
scarcely more than the bear, the leopard or panther, the wolf, the hyæna,
the jackal, the fox, the hare, the wild boar, the ichneumon, the gazelle,
the squirrel, the rat, and the mole. The present existence of the bear
within the limits of the ancient Phoenicia has been questioned,
but the animal has been seen in Lebanon by Mr. Porter, and in the
mountains of Galilee by Canon Tristram. The species is the Eastern
Mediterranean bear, a large and fierce beast, which, though generally
frugivorous, will under the presser of hunger attack both men and animals.
Its main habitat is, no doubt, the less accessible parts of Lebanon;
but in the winter it will descend to the villages and gardens, where
it often does much damage. The panther or leopard has, like the
bear, been seen by Mr. Porter in the Lebanon range; and Canon Tristram,
when visiting Carmel, was offered the skin of an adult leopard which
had probably been killed in that neighbourhood. Anciently it was much
more frequent in Phoenicia than it is at present, as appears by the
numerous notices of it in Scripture. Wolves, hyænas, and jackals
are comparatively common. They haunt not only Carmel and Lebanon, but
many portions of the coast tract. Canon Tristram obtained from Carmel
"the two largest hyænas that he had ever seen,"
and fell in with jackals in the vicinity. Wolves seem to be more
scarce, though anciently very plentiful.
haunts of the wild boar (/Sus scrofa/) in Phoenicia are Carmel and
the deep valleys on the western slope of Lebanon. The valley of the
Adonis (Ibrahim) is still noted for them, but, except on Carmel,
they are not very abundant. Foxes and hares are also somewhat rare,
and it is doubtful whether rabbits are to be found in any part of the
country; ichneumons, which are tolerably common, seem sometimes
to be mistaken for them. Gazelles are thought to inhabit Carmel,
and squirrels, rats, and moles are common. Bats also, if they may be
counted among land-animals, are frequent; they belong, it is probable,
to several species, one of which is /Xantharpyia ægyptiaca/.
animals and birds
fauna of Phoenicia is restricted so far as land-animals are concerned,
it is extensive and varied in respect of birds. The list of known birds
includes two sorts of eagle (/Circaëtos gallicus/ and /Aquila nævioïdes/),
the osprey, the vulture, the falcon, the kite, the honey-buzzard, the
marsh-harrier, the sparrow-hawk, owls of two kinds (/Ketupa ceylonensis/
and /Athene meridionalis/), the grey shrike (/Lanius excubitor/), the
common cormorant, the pigmy cormorant (/Græculus pygmæus/),
numerous seagulls, as the Adriatic gull (/Larus melanocephalus/), Andonieri's
gull, the herring-gull, the Red-Sea-gull (/Larus ichthyo-aëtos/),
and others; the gull-billed tern (/Sterna anglica/), the Egyptian goose,
the wild duck, the woodcock, the Greek partridge (/Caccabis saxatilis/),
the waterhen, the corncrake or landrail, the coot, the water-ouzel,
the francolin; plovers of three kinds, green, golden, and Kentish; dotterels
of two kinds, red- throated and Asiatic; the Manx shearwater, the flamingo,
the heron, the common kingfisher, and the black and white kingfisher
of Egypt, the jay, the wood-pigeon, the rock-dove, the blue thrush,
the Egyptian fantail (/Drymca gracilis/), the redshank, the wheat-ear
(/Saxicola libanotica/), the common lark, the Persian horned lark, the
cisticole, the yellow-billed Alpine chough, the nightingale of the East
(/Ixos xanthopygius/), the robin, the brown linnet, the chaffinch; swallows
of two kinds (/Hirundo cahirica/ and /Hirundo rufula/); the meadow bunting;
the Lebanon redstart, the common and yellow water-wagtails, the chiffchaff,
the coletit, the Russian tit, the siskin, the nuthatch, and the willow
wren. Of these the most valuable for the table are the partridge, the
francolin, and the woodcock. The Greek partridge is "a fine red-legged
bird, much larger than our red-legged partridge, and very much better
eating, with white flesh, and nearly as heavy as a pheasant."
The francolin or black partridge is also a delicacy; and the woodcock,
which is identical with our own, has the same delicate flavour.
and fresh-water fish
of Phoenicia, excepting certain shell-fish, are little known, and have
seldom attracted the attention of travellers. The Mediterranean, however,
where it washes the Phoenician coast, can furnish excellent mullet,
while most of the rivers contain freshwater fish of several kinds, as
the /Blennius lupulus/, the /Scaphiodon capoëta/, and the /Anguilla
microptera/. All of these fish may be eaten, but the quality is
other hand, to certain of the shell-fish of Phoenicia a great celebrity
attaches. The purple dye which gave to the
textile fabrics of the Phoenicians a world-wide reputation was prepared
from certain shell-fish which abounded upon their coast. Four existing
species have been regarded as more or less employed in the manufacture,
and it seems to be certain, at any rate, that the Phoenicians derived
the dye from more shell-fish than one. The four are the /Buccinum lapillus/
of Pliny, which is the /Purpura lapillus/ of modern naturalists;
the /Murex trunculus/; the /Murex brandaris/; and the /Helix ianthina/.
The Buccinum derives its name from the form of the shell, which has
a wide mouth, like that of a trumpet, and which after one or two twists
terminates in a pointed head. The /Murex trunculus/ has the same
general form as the Buccinum; but the shell is more rough and spinous,
being armed with a number of long thin projections which terminate in
a sharp point. The /Murex brandaris/ is a closely allied species,
and "one of the most plentiful on the Phoenician coast."
It is unlikely that the ancients regarded it as a different shell from
/Murex trunculus/. The /Helix ianthina/ has a wholly different character.
It is a sort of sea-snail, as the name /helix/ implies, is perfectly
smooth, "very delicate and fragile, and not more than about three-quarters
of an inch in diameter." All these shell-fish contain a /sac/
or bag full of colouring matter, which is capable of being used as a
dye. It is quite possible that they were all, more or less, made use
of by the Phoenician dyers; but the evidence furnished by existing remains
on the Tyrian coast is strongly in favour of the /Murex brandaris/ as
the species principally employed.
treasures of Phoenicia have not, in modern times, been examined with
any care. The Jura limestone, which forms the substratum of the entire
region, cannot be expected to yield any important mineral products.
But the sandstone, which overlies it in places, is "often largely
impregnated with iron," and some strata towards the southern end
of Lebanon are said to produce "as much as ninety per cent. of
pure iron ore." An ochrous earth is also found in the hills
above Beyrout, which gives from fifty to sixty per cent. of metal.
Coal, too, has been found in the same locality, but it is of bad quality,
and does not exist in sufficient quantity to form an important product.
Limestone, both cretaceous and siliceous, is plentiful, as are sandstone,
trap and basalt; while porphyry and greenstone are also obtainable.
Carmel yields crystals of quarts and chalcedony, and the fine sand
about Tyre and Sidon is still such as would make excellent glass. But
the main productions of Phoenicia, in which its natural wealth consisted,
must always have been vegetable, rather than animal or mineral, and
have consisted in its timber, especially its cedars and pines; its fruits,
as olives, figs, grapes, and, in early times, dates; and its garden
vegetables, melons, gourds, pumpkins, cucumbers.
Kenrick, /Phoenicia/, p. 32.
 Grove, in Smith's /Dict. of the Bible/, ii. 693.
 Kenrick, l.s.c.
 See Canon Tristram's experiences, /Land of Israel/, pp. 96-115.
 Ibid. pp. 94, 95.
 Kenrick, p. 34.
 Walpole's /Ansayrii/, p. 76.
 Kenrick, p. 33.
 Tristram, /Land of Israel/, p. 95.
 Ibid. p. 409.
 Ibid. p. 31.
 Ibid. p. 34.
 Ibid. p. 596.
 Hooker, in /Dictionary of the Bible/, ii. 684.
 Hooker, in /Dictionary of the Bible/, p. 683.
 Dr. Hooker says:--"/Q. pseudococcifera/ is perhaps the most
common plant in all Eastern Mediterranean, covering as a low dense
bush many square miles of hilly country everywhere, but rarely or
never growing on the plains. It seldom becomes a large tree, except
in the valleys of the Lebanon." Walpole found it on Bargylus
(/Ansayrii/, iii. 137 et sqq.); Tristram on Lebanon, /Land of Israel/,
pp. 113, 117.
 Hooker, in /Dict. of the Bible/, ii. 684. Compare Tristram, /Land
of Israel/, p. 113.
 See Walpole, /Ansayrii/, iii. 222, 236; Tristram, /Land of Israel/,
pp. 622, 623; Robinson, /Later Researches/, p. 607.
 Walpole, iii. 433; Robinson, /Later Researches/, p.. 614.
 Tristram, /Land of Israel/, p. 6.
 Ibid. p. 111; Walpole, /Ansayrii/, iii. 166; Hooker, in /Dict.
of the Bible/, ii. 683.
 Walpole says that Ibrahim Pasha cut down as many as 500,000 Aleppo
pines in Casius (/Ansayrii/, iii. 281), and that it would be quite
feasible to cut down 500,000 more.
 Hooker, in /Dict. of the Bible/, ii. 684; and compare Tristram,
/Land of Israel/, pp. 16, 88.
 Robinson, /Biblical Researches/, iii. 383, 415.
 Ezek. xxxi. 3.
 Ibid. xxvii. 5. The Hebrew /erez/ probably covered other trees
besides the actual cedar, as the Aleppo pine, and perhaps the juniper.
The pine would have been more suited for masts than the cedar.
 1 Kings vi. 9, 10, 15, 18, &c.; vii. 1-7.
 /Records of the Past/, i. 104. ll. 78, 79; iii. 74, ll. 88-90;
p. 90, l. 9; &c. Compare Layard, /Nineveh and Babylon/, pp. 356,
 Joseph, /Bell. Jud./, v. 5, ß 2.
 Plin. /H. N./, xiii. 5; xvi. 40.
 Compare the arguments of Canon Tristram, /Land of Israel/, pp.
 Walpole, /Ansayrii/, pp. 123, 227.
 Tristram, /Land of Israel/, p. 621.
 Ibid. pp. 13, 38, &c.
 Hooker, in /Dictionary of the Bible/, ii. 684.
 Tristram, /Land of Israel/, p. 82; compare Hooker, l.s.c.
 This is Dr. Hooker's description. Canon Tristram says of the
styrax at the eastern foot of Carmel, that "of all the flowering
shrubs it is the most abundant," and that it presents to the
eye "one sheet of pure white blossom, rivalling the orange in
its beauty and its perfume" (/Land of Israel/, p. 492).
 Ibid. p. 596.
 Walpole, /Ansayrii/, iii. 298.
 Tristram, pp. 16, 28, &c.; Robinson, /Biblical Researches/,
 The "terraced vineyards of Esfia" on Carmel are noted
by Canon Tristram (/Land of Israel/, p. 492). Walpole speaks of vineyards
on Bargylus (/Ansaryii/, iii. 165). The vine-clad slopes of the Lebanon
attract notice from all Eastern travellers.
 Quoted by Dr. Hooker, in Smith's /Dictionary of the Bible/, ii.
 Deut. xxxiii. 24.
 Tristram, /Land of Israel/, pp. 7, 16, 17; Walpole, /Ansayrii/,
iii. 147, 177.
 Tristram, p. 492; Stanley, /Sinai and Palestine/, p. 347.
 Hooker, in Smith's /Dictionary of the Bible/, ii. 685.
 Tristram, pp. 622, 633; Walpole, /Ansayrii/, iii. 446; Robinson,
/Later Researches/, p. 607.
 Tristram, pp. 17, 38; Walpole, /Ansayrii/, iii. 32, 294, 373.
 Robinson, /Bibl. Researches/, iii. 419, 431, 438, &c.
 Tristram, /Land of Israel/, p. 28.
 Hasselquist, /Reise/, p. 188.
 /Ansayrii/, i. 66.
 Tristram, l.s.c.
 Hooker, in /Dictionary of the Bible/, ii. 685.
 /Reise/, l.s.c.
 /MÈmoires/, i. 332.
 Tristram, /Land of Israel/, p. 493.
 Tristram, /Land of Israel/, p. 82.
 Renan, /Mission de PhÈnicie/, p. 59; Hooker, in /Dictionary
of the Bible/, ii. 687; Tristram, /Land of Israel/, p. 493.
 Tristram, /Land of Israel/, l.s.c.
 Ibid. p. 82.
 Ibid. p. 596. Compare Walpole's /Ansayrii/, iii. 443.
 Tristram, /Land of Israel/, p. 102.
 Tristram, /Land of Israel/, pp. 61, 599.
 Ibid. pp. 38, 626, &c. Dr. Robinson notices the cultivation
of the potato high up in Lebanon; but he observed it only in two places
(/Later Researches/, pp. 586, 596).
 It can scarcely be doubted that Phoenicia contained anciently
two other land animals of considerable importance, viz. the lion and
the deer. Lions, which were common in the hills (1 Sam. xvii. 34;
1 Kings xiii. 24; xx. 36; 2 Kings xvii. 25, 26) and frequented also
the Philistine plain (Judg. xiv. 5), would certainly not have neglected
the lowland of Sharon, which was in all respects suited for their
habits. Deer, which still inhabit Galilee (Tristram, /Land of the
Israel/, pp. 418, 447), are likely, before the forests of Lebanon
were so greatly curtailed, to have occupied most portions of it (See
Cant. ii. 9, 17; viii. 14). To these two Canon Tristram would add
the crocodile (/Land of Israel/, p. 103), which he thinks must have
been found in the Zerka for that river to have been called "the
Crocodile River" by the Greeks, and which he is inclined to regard
as still a denizen of the Zerka marshes. But most critics have supposed
that the animal from which the Zerka got its ancient name was rather
some large species of monitor.
 Kenrick, /Phoenicia/, p. 36.
 See his article on Lebanon in Smith's /Dictionary of the Bible/,
 /Land of Israel/, p. 447.
 Houghton, in Smith's /Dict. of the Bible/, ad voc. BEAR, iii.
 /Dict. of the Bible/, ii. 87.
 /Land of Israel/, p. 116. Compare Porter's /Giant Cities of Bashan/,
 Cant. iv. 8; Is. xi. 6; Jer. v. 6; xiii. 23; Hos. xiii. 7; Hab.
 /Land of Israel/, l.s.c.
 Ibid. p. 83.
 Ibid. p. 115.
 Walpole's /Ansayrii/, iii. 23.
 Houghton, in Smith's /Dict. of the Bible/, ad voc. CONEY (iii.
xliii.); Tristram, /Land of Israel/, pp. 62, 84, 89.
 Tristram, /Land of Israel/, p. 106.
 Ibid. pp. 88, 89.
 Tristram, /Land of Israel/, p. 83.
 Ibid. p. 55.
 Ibid. p. 103. Compare Walpole, /Ansayrii/, iii. 34, 188, and
Lortet, /La Syrie d'aujourd'hui/, pp. 58, 61.
 /Hist. Nat./ ix. 36.
 Kenrick, /Phoenicia/, p. 239. There are representations of the
Buccunum in Forbes and Hanley's /British Mollusks/, vol. iv. pl. cii.
Nos. 1, 2, 3.
 Kenrick, p. 239.
 Tristram, /Land of Israel/, p. 51.
 Wilksinson, in Rawlinson's /Herodotus/, ii. 347, note 2.
 Canon Tristram writs: "Among the rubbish thrown out in the
excavations made at Tyre were numerous fragments of glass, and whole
'kitchen middens' of shells, crushed and broken, the owners of which
had once supplied the famous Tyrian purple dye. All these shells were
of one species, the /Murex brandaris/" (/Land of Israel, p. 51).
 Porter, in /Dict. of the Bible/, ii. 87.
 Kenrick, /Phoenicia/, p. 37.
 Tristram, p. 634.
 Grove, in /Dict. of the Bible/, i. 279.
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