Zachariah of Mitylene, Syriac Chronicle (1899). Book 3.
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The Syriac Chronicle of Zachariah of Mitylene is a very important source of information about the anti- Chalcedonian communion to the middle of the 6th century. It contains letters by many of the patriarchs and leading figures of the resistance to Chalcedon.

Book III

The beginning of the third Book, which (inasmuch as it is from the history of Zachanah the believer, who wrote in Greek to one Eupraxius by name, a minister of the king, and engaged in his service) records the events that took place in the Synod, which met at Chalcedon, after the death of Theodosius, in the days of Marcian, in the year seven hundred and sixty-four by the reckoning of the Greeks. And the number of the bishops was five hundred arid, sixty-seven, who were brought together in consequence of the exertion ,of Leo of Rome, and the letter that he wrote to the king and his wife Pulcheria. And the Synod sent Dioscorus of Alexandria away to Gangra of Thrace, and appointed Proterius bishop in his stead, and received the letter of Leo, which is called the Tome. And the other matters, which occurred in Jerusalem, or in Alexandria, or in other places during, the life of Marcian, that is, a space of six years and a half; behold they are written down here distinctly in these twelve Books below and the chapters contained in them.

The first chapter relates the events which occurred in the Synod of Chalcedon, until the public address of Marcian the king to the bishops assembled there.

The second chapter tells about the banishment of Dioscorus to Gangra, and the consecration of Proterius in his stead; and the events which occurred in Alexandria upon his entry there.

The third chapter relates the events which occurred in Palestine, concerning Juvenalis of Jerusalem, who broke his promises, and separated from Dioscorus, and agreed to the Synod. And when the citizens of Jerusalem and the Palestinian monks learned this, they appointed, as bishop in his stead, one Theodosius, a monk; who, in his zeal, had attended and watched the Synod closely, and then went back to Palestine and told what had occurred at Chalcedon.

The fourth chapter tells of Peter the hostage, the son of the king of the Iberians, a wonderful man, who was taken by the people of Gaza; and they brought him to Theodosius of Jerusalem, by whom he was consecrated as their bishop.

The fifth chapter tells about the flight of Theodosius of Jerusalem, in consequence of the king's threats; and also about the return of Juvenalis, by force, to Jerusalem, and the great slaughter that ensued upon his entry there.

The sixth chapter gives an account of a certain blind Samaritan, who smeared his eyes with the blood of the slain, and they were opened.

The seventh chapter tells how Christ appeared in vision to Peter the Iberian, bishop of Gaza, and told him to depart from thence, and also himself to suffer banishment of his own accord.

The eighth chapter tells about a certain monk, named Solomon, who acted cunningly, and went in to Juvenalis of Jerusalem, and threw a basketful of dust upon his head, and reproached him.

The ninth chapter tells how Theodosius of Jerusalem was taken, and was imprisoned in a house containing lime, and there he ended his life.

The tenth chapter tells about the heresy of John the Rhetorican, and how this heresy was anathematised by Timothy, the bishop of Alexandria, after him.

The eleventh chapter tells about the mission of John the Silentarius, from the king to Alexandria.

The twelfth chapter tells about Anthemius, and Severus, and Olybrius, and Leo the Less, and what happened in the seven years of their reign.1

Chapter I

The 2 first chapter of this book tells about the events which occurred in the synod, being taken from the history of one Zachariah by name, who begins to write in Greek to Eupraxius as follows

Since it is acceptable unto you, and desired by you, Christ-loving Eupraxius,3 who are dwelling in the royal palace, and are occupied in the service of kings, to learn what happened, in the reign of Marcian, to the holy Church of God; and who they were who, in regular succession, were the chief priests in Alexandria, and Rome, and Constantinople, and Antioch, and Jerusalem, from the time of the Council of Chalcedon—that Council which, ostensibly convened about the matter of Eutyches, introduced and increased the heresy of Nestorius; and shook all the world; and added evil upon evil; and set the two heresies, one against the other; and filled the world with divisions; and confounded the faith delivered by the apostles, and the good order of the Church; and tore into ten thousand rents the perfect Robe of Christ, woven from the top throughout : therefore we, anathematising those two heresies, and every wicked teacher of doctrine corrupt and contrary to the Church of God, and to the orthodox faith of the three holy Synods, which skilfully maintained the true doctrine; shall, to that end, employ this history which you urged us to undertake.

After the death of the holy Cyril of Alexandria, who carried on the conflict against many corrupt doctrines, and exposed them, Dioscorus received the throne as his successor; and he was a peaceable man, and also a champion; although he had not the same promptitude and boldness as Cyril.

At that time Theodoret and Hibo, who, along with Flavian of Constantinople and Eusebius, were deposed by the second Synod of Ephesus, which met there in the days of Theodosius, about the matter of Eutyches, and Flavian— Theodoret of Cyrrhus, because he wrote twelve censures upon Cyril's Heads against Nestorius; and Hibo of Edessa, because he wrote a letter to Moris of Nisibis, reviling Cyril -- were, both of them, upholding the doctrine of Theodore and Diodorus. And Theodoret4 went up to Leo of Rome, and informed him about all these matters; and, with the gift which blinds the eyes of the soul, he got the better of him. Whereupon Leo composed 5 that letter which is called the Tome, and which was ostensibly written to Flavian against Eutychianism. But Leo also wrote to Marcian the king, and his wife Pulcheria, and warmly commended Theodoret to them.

This6 Marcian favoured the doctrine of Nestorius, and was well disposed towards him; and so he sent by John the Tribune, to recall Nestorius from his place of banishment in Oasis; and to recall also Dorotheus, the bishop who was with him. And it happened while he was returning, that he set at naught the holy Virgin, the Theotokos, and said, "What is Mary? Why should she indeed be called the Theotokos!" And the righteous judgment of God speedily overtook him (as had been the case formerly with Arius, who blasphemed against the Son of God). Accordingly he fell from his mule, and the tongue 7 of this Nestorius was cut off, and his mouth was eaten by worms, and he died on the roadway. And his companion Dorotheus died also. And the king, hearing of it, was greatly grieved; and he was thinking upon what had occurred, and he was in doubt as to what he should do.

However, written directions from Marcian the king were delivered by John the Tribune to Dioscorus and Juvenalis, calling upon them to meet in Council, and John also informed them of what had happened to Nestorius and to Dorotheus.

And when the bishops of every place, who were summoned, were preparing to meet at Nicea, Providence did not allow them; for the king8 issued a new order that the assembly should be convened to Chalcedon, so that Nicea might not be the meeting-place of rebels.

Then 9 the Nestorian party earnestly urged and besought the king that Theodoret should be appointed the president of the Synod, and that, according to his word, every matter should be decided there.10 And when they met at Chalcedon, Theodoret entered in and lived there boldly, like an honoured bishop; he who a little time before had been ejected from the priesthood by their means. And Dioscorus and the chief bishops were vexed and troubled on account of the haughty insolence which the man displayed; but they could not put a stop to it, because of the royal authority, though they saw that the canons were despised by him, and by Hibo also, with the help of the Roman legates of Leo, who were aiding and abetting them.

And when Dioscorus was proclaiming the doctrine of the faith in the Synod, and with him Juvenalis, and Thalassius of Cappadocia, and Anatolius, and Amphilochius of Side, and Eusebius of Ancyra, and Eustace of Berytus; then, as by a miracle, Eusebius of Dorylaeum also agreed with them; for they saw that the Nestorian doctrine of the two natures was confirmed, and established there, by the co-operation of John of Germanicia, who fiercely contended, in the course of the dispute there, with the side which said, "It is right for us to confess Christ after His incarnation as one Nature from two, according to the belief of the rest of the Fathers, and not to introduce any innovation or add any novelty to the faith."

Wherefore, John of Germanicia, and the rest of the Nestorian party, with Theodoret at their head, brought about the deprivation of Dioscorus; because he said, "It is right for us to believe that Christ became incarnate from two natures; and we should not confess two natures after the union, like Nestorius.

And 11 then Anatolius, the bishop of the royal city, cried out in words to this effect, "Not for the faith is Dioscorus deposed; but he is set at nought for refusing to hold communion with the chief priest, my lord Leo."

And after the outcry of many, and after the things had been spoken which have been written in the Acts of that Council, at last those bishops being forced to do so, defined our Lord Jesus Christ to be in two natures. And they praised the Tome of Leo, and they called that an orthodox definition which said, "There are two Persons, and two Natures, with their properties and their operations." And this being so, they were required to subscribe under compulsion; those very priests who, a little time before in the days of the blessed Theodosius, being assembled at the second Council of Ephesus, cried out many times, "If anyone shall say 'Two natures to two,' let the Silentiarius come up !"

And when they repeated this over to Dioscorus, by means of John the chief of the Silentiarii, and asked him to agree to it, and to subscribe, and get back his throne; he said, courageously, "Sooner would Dioscorus see his own hand cut off, and the blood falling on the paper, than do such a thing as that." Whereupon he was sent into banishment to Gangra, because the Nestorian party published the report about him, that his opinions were the same as those of Eutyches.

And I think it well, omitting many of his sayings, both what he spoke and wrote to Domnus of Antioch, and in the Synod of Chalcedon itself, which testify concerning the faith of the man, that his faith was like that of Athanasius, and Cyril, and the other doctors, I think it well (I say) to make a written extract out of what he wrote from his place of banishment to. Secundinus, in the following words :—

"Omitting many urgent matters, this I declare, that no man shall say that the holy flesh, which our Lord took from the Virgin Mary, by the operation of the Holy Spirit, in a manner which He Himself knows, was different to and foreign from our body. And, indeed, since this is so, they who affirm that Christ did not become incarnate for us, give the lie to Paul. For he has said, 'Not from angels did He take (the nature), but from the seed of the House of Abraham'; to which seed Mary was no stranger, as the Scriptures teach us. And again,' It was right that in everything He should be made like unto His brethren,' and that word 'in everything' does not suffer the subtraction of any part of our nature : since in nerves, and hair, and bones, and veins, and belly, and heart, and kidneys, and liver, and lungs, and, in short, in all those things that belong to our nature, the flesh which was born from Mary was compacted with the soul of our Redeemer, that reasonable and intelligent soul, without the seed of man, and the gratification and cohabitation of sleep.

"For if, as the heretics think, this was not so, how is He named 'our brother,' supposing that He used a body different from ours ? And how, again, is that true which He said to His Father, 'I will declare Thy name to My brethren ?'12 Let us not reject, neither let us despise, those who think in this way. For He was like us, for us, and with us, not in phantasy, nor in mere semblance, according to the heresy of the Manichaeans, but rather in actual reality from Mary, the Theotokos. To comfort the desolate and to repair the vessel that had been broken, He came to us new. And as Immanuel, indeed, He is confessed; for He became poor for us, according to the saying of Paul, 'that we, by His humiliation, might be made rich.'13 He became, by the dispensation, like us; that we, by His tender mercy, might be like Him. He became man, and yet He did not destroy that which is His nature, that He is Son of God; that we, by grace, might become the sons of God. This I think and believe; and, if any man does not think thus, he is a stranger to the faith of the apostles."

And although14 this apostolic man had been well versed in this confession of faith from the beginning of his life, yet he was deposed and sent into banishment, because he would not worship the image, with its two faces, which was set up by Leo and by the Council of Chalcedon; and because he refused to hold communion with Theodoret and Hibo, who had been deprived on account of their blasphemies.

But the story goes that when, oh one occasion, he saw Theodoret sitting upon the throne in the Council, and speaking from it, and not standing and making his defence, as one should who had been canonically deposed from the priesthood; then he himself arose and descended from the throne and sat upon the pavement, saying, "I Will not sit with the wicked, nor with vain persons will I enter in."

Whereupon the partisans of Theodoret cried out, "He has deposed himself." But the other bishops cried out, "Our faith15 is perishing. If Theodoret, who holds the opinions of Nestorius, be accepted, we reject Cyril." And then Basil, the bishop of Tripolis, stood up and said, "We ourselves have deposed Theodoret."

But they say that Amphilochius was beaten on his head by Aetius the deacon, to make him sign. It was this Aetius who went to Theodoret by night, and made a complete copy for him of the Symbol of the two Natures; and when 16 it was accepted by the bishops, and they agreed to it, then Theodoret insolently derided them, saying, "See how I have made them taste the leaven of the doctrine of Nestorius, and they are delighted with it ! "17

"But Eustace of Berytus, when he signed the document, wrote in short hand, "This have I written under compulsion, not agreeing with it." And he wept very much, as did also others who proclaimed the compulsion and exposed the hypocritical profession of faith which was made, because the chief senators were present time after time at the discussions, and closely watched the proceedings of the Synod. But, at last, the king came there, with his wife Pulcheria, and he delivered a public address in the Martyr Church of Euphemia in the following terms :

"From 18 the first time that we were chosen and accounted Worthy of the kingdom by God, amidst all the care of public business, no concern whatever in which we might be involved was allowed to hinder us, but we made it our choice to honour the true faith of the Christians, and to accustom the minds of men to it, with purity; all novelty of false doctrines and preachings that do not agree with the well proved doctrine of the Fathers, being taken out of our midst. Therefore we summoned this holy Synod that it might cleanse away all darkness, and put away filth of thoughts : that so, in pure mind, the doctrine of the faith which is in our Lord Jesus Christ might be established," and so on, to the same effect.

When the king had finished his public address, the bishops praised him and the Senate, and also the letter of Leo, affirming with respect to it that it agreed with the faith of the Apostle Peter.

Chapter II

The second chapter tells about the banishment of Dioscorus, and the consecration of Proterius in his stead; and about the slaughter which ensued upon his coming in; and the church funds, which he expended upon his allies the Romans, but which, by right, belonged to the poor

The Synod having received such an end as this, Dioscorus19 was decreed to be a confessor, and was sent away to live in Gangra; and Proterius was appointed bishop in Alexandria, in his stead. This Proterius20 had been a presbyter on his side, and had contended earnestly against the Synod at first, but afterwards, with the object of snatching the see for himself, he became like Judas, a betrayer of his master, and like Absalom, of his father; and he showed himself a rapacious wolf in the midst of the flock. And many who were unwilling he afflicted and ill-treated, to force them into agreement with himself. And he sent them into banishment, and he seized their property by means of the governors who obeyed him in. consequence of the king's command.

Whereupon, indeed, the priests, and the monks, and many of the people, perceiving that the faith had been polluted, both by the unjust deposition of Dioscorus and the oppressive conduct of Proterius and his wickedness, assembled by themselves in the monasteries, and severed themselves from his communion. And they proclaimed Dioscorus, and wrote his name in the book of life as a chosen and faithful priest of God.

And Proterius was very indignant, and he gave gifts into the hand of the Romans, and he armed them against the people, and he filled their hands with the blood of believers, who were slain; for they also strengthened themselves,21 and made war. And many died at the very Altar, and in the Baptistery, who had fled and taken refuge there.

Chapter III

The third chapter narrates the events which occurred in palestine respecting Juvenalis of Jerusalem, who broke his promises, and separated himself from dioscorus. And the monks and the citizens of Jerusalem heard of the matter from Theodosius, a monk, who, through zeal, was present at Chalcedon, and who, after having carefully watched the proceedings there, came to Jerusalem and gave information about them; and they made him bishop by force, instead of Juvenalis

And in Palestine, indeed, there were evils like these, and worse. But from what cause I shall now tell. When Juvenalis was summoned to Chalcedon, and he learned from John the Tribune the will of the king; and also that Nestorius, who had been recalled, died on his return from banishment; then he (inasmuch as he was persuaded that the doctrine of the Tome, which favoured the opinion of Nestorius, was corrupt) summoned the clergy, and gathered the monks and the people together; and he exposed this false doctrine, and anathematised it. And he confirmed the souls of many in the true faith. And he charged them all, that if he should be perverted in the Synod, they should hold communion with him no more.

And at first when he went there, he made a great struggle, along with Dioscorus, on behalf of the faith. But because the royal pressure was brought to bear; and because of the flattery and compliments of the king, who himself waited personally upon the bishops at the banquet, and showed great condescension to them; and because the king also promised that he would give the three provinces of Palestine to the honour of the see of Jerusalem; then the eyes of his mind were darkened, and he left Dioscorus the champion alone, and he went over to the opposite side. And he treated with contempt the oaths which he had made in the name of God. And both he and the bishops who were with him agreed and subscribed.

And 22 when Theodosius the monk, and his companions who were in close fellowship with him, and who zealously watched what was taking place in the Synod, heard about this they returned quickly to Palestine; and they came to Jerusalem, and told about the betrayal of the faith. And they called all the monks together, and gave full information to them.

And the monks assembled, and prepared themselves, and went to meet Juvenalis as he was coming. And they reminded him of his promises, and that he had failed to keep them. And they made this one request of him, that he would censure the proceedings which had taken place, and anathematise them. But he showed himself like Pilate, saying, "What I have written, I have written." And the monks said to him, "We will not receive you then, for you have broken your oaths and your promises." So he returned to the king.

But the assembly of monks and clergy went back to Jerusalem. And the people, and the bishops who were with them, were distressed, and they consulted together as to what they should do. And they decided to appoint another bishop instead of Juvenalis. When they were speaking of the chaste monks, Romanus and Marcian, and of other men of wonderful excellence; at length23 it was agreed that they should appoint Theodosius, who had been found zealous, and who also had contended for years on behalf of the faith. And they took him by force, while he persisted in refusing, and conjuring them not to do so, and begging them to allow him to be the helper of the person whom they appointed from amongst themselves. However, they would not yield to his entreaties; but blessed him and placed him on the throne. And when the other cities of Palestine heard it; inasmuch as they knew him to be a man of surpassing virtue, and zealous for the truth; they severally brought persons to receive his blessing and be admitted to the priesthood.

Chapter IV

The fourth chapter tells about Peter the Iberian; and how he also was taken, and was brought to Theodosius by the people of Gaza; and he became their bishop

Among these also was Peter the Iberian, a man wonderfully celebrated throughout the world, a king's son, who had been given as a hostage to Theodosius; and who was beloved by him and by his wife Eudocia, on account of his excellent parts. And he was brought up in the king's palace; and he was placed in charge of the royal horses. But he resigned this appointment, and gave himself up to the discipline of Christ along with John the Eunuch also, who was his sponsor, and his father by water and the Spirit. And they prospered, and God wrought signs by their means in Constantinople. And they fled from thence, and betook themselves next to the wilderness of Palestine, and there they loved and cultivated the monastic life. And although after this manner they desired to be hidden, yet they became greatly celebrated; and they wrought signs like the apostles.

And as they were changing from place to place, they arrived opposite to Gaza and Majuma. And the men and the women and the people of all ranks and ages went out and seized Peter, and brought him to Jerusalem to Theodosius, whom they besought to make him their bishop.

And he laid many charges against himself, and refused ordination. And against his will Theodosius laid his hand upon his head and consecrated him, for he knew the man. And when he became violently agitated, and called himself a heretic; then Theodosius hesitated a little, and said to him, "My cause and thine are before the Judgment Seat of Christ." And he changed his words, saying, "A heretic indeed I am not, but a sinner." And Theodosius, being well acquainted with the man, blessed him as priest for the people of Gaza.

But there were other excellent deeds done by this man, which, however, I omit, lest I should make my narrative too long.

Chapter V

The fifth chapter tells about the flight of Theodosius of Jerusalem, in consequence of the king's threats; also about juvenalis, who returned with an army of romans; and the great slaughter that ensued upon his entry there

And when Theodosius was prospering in this manner, the report of all that he was doing reached Marcian the king. And Juvenalis returned, having with him Count Dorotheus and an army; for the purpose of taking Theodosius, and making him a prisoner, and deposing all the bishops whom he had made in his district, and punishing24 the monks and the people, and expelling them in consequence of their insolence and rashness in setting up Theodosius as bishop in Jerusalem. But, by the desire of the queen, Peter the Iberian alone was to be spared; even though he should not consent to hold communion with the other bishops.

And when Juvenalis arrived at Neapolis, he found a large number of monks there; and at first he tried to seduce them, simple men as they were, and single-minded, whose arms and helmet were the true faith and works of righteousness. These he endeavoured to persuade to hold communion with himself. And when they turned away from this proposal with disgust, unless he would anathematise the violent transactions of Chalcedon; he then said, "It is the king's will."

And they still refused. Whereupon he gave orders to the Romans and the Samaritans, who smote and killed these monks, while they were singing psalms and saying, "O God, the heathen are come into Thine inheritance, and they have defiled Thy holy temple; and behold they are making Jerusalem a waste place!" 25

And some of the Romans were overcome with pity, and wept. But some of them, along with the Samaritans, killed many of the monks, whose blood also was poured out upon the ground.

Chapter VI

The sixth chapter tells about a certain blind Samaritan who drew near with faith, and smeared his eyes with the blood of those that were slain; and his sight was restored

There was a certain blind Samaritan who deceived his own guide, and said, "Since mine eyes cannot see the blood of the slaughter of these Christians, so that I may delight myself in it; bring me near and I shall feel it." And when the guide brought him near and caused him to feel it, he dipped his hands in the blood. And he prostrated himself upon the ground; and he wept, with prayer and supplication, that he might be a sharer in their martyrdom. Then he arose, and smeared his eyes, and lifted up his hands to heaven; and his eyes were opened, and he received his sight.

And all who were witnesses of this miracle, were astonished and believed in God. And the blind man also believed, and was baptized.

But the party who administered the king's orders, laid hold upon the surviving believers, and expelled them from the whole district.

Chapter VII

The seventh chapter relates how our lord appeared to Peter the Iberian, of Gaza; and told him that he must depart along with those who were expelled

But they say that Peter the Illustrious was at rest, being left undisturbed by all, both on account of the king's orders, and the loving care of the queen for him.

But he saw the Lord in a vision, saying to him indignantly, "How now, Peter! Am I being expelled in My believing servants, and art thou remaining quiet and at rest?" Then Peter repented and obeyed, and he arose and left Gaza; and he joined those who were expelled, and departed with them.

Chapter VIII

The eighth chapter tells about a certain zealous monk, named Solomon; who acted cunningly, and went in to juvenalis, as if he desired to be blessed by him, and threw a basketful of dust upon his head, and reproached him

And Juvenalis, having by means of the armed force of the Romans expelled the believers and the monks who were in the country district, arrived at Jerusalem and sat upon the throne. And he paid no regard at all to his promises, nor to the slaughter which had occurred upon his entry there, nor to the falsehood of his oaths.

Then a certain monk, Solomon by name, was stirred in his spirit; and in this honourable garb of chastity, and as if desiring to be blessed by the chief priest himself, acted cunningly, and filled a basket with dust and ashes, and placed it under his armpit, and drew near to Juvenalis. And the latter was glad when the monk came in to him. And Solomon, being received by him, said to him, "Let my lord bless me."

And, as the Roman guard permitted him to draw near and come close to Juvenalis, he took out the basket of dust and emptied it on his head, saying, "Shame upon thee, shame upon thee, liar and persecutor! "And when the Roman guard were about to strike him, Juvenalis would not allow it. And he was not enraged, but was rather moved to penitence by this, and shook the dust from his head. So they only put out the monk from his presence. And he ordered that money for his expenses should be given to him, and that he should leave his country. The monk, however, refused the money, but left the country.

Chapter IX

The ninth chapter tells how Theodosius, being sought for by the Roman army, was taken and imprisoned in a house containing lime; where at length he died

But Theodosius, when he was sought for by the king's orders through the whole province, assumed the garb of a Roman, having on his head hair and a helmet; and he went about confirming and encouraging the believers. At length, however, when he arrived at the parts about Sidon, he was taken and delivered up to the Romans by one of his own friends.

And the Nestorian party were so enraged against him, because he had been going about through the whole world, and exposing and anathematising the false doctrine of Nestorius, that they went up to the king, and persuaded him to grant that the man should be given into their charge and keeping. And they took him and imprisoned him in a small house, belonging to the monks, in which there was quicklime.

And these followers of Nestorius used to go to him in troops, and dispute with him, hoping that under pressure of great affliction he would change his mind, and agree to their will. And he prevailed over them all and repulsed them; and as they departed from him ashamed and confounded, he said, "Even though I am imprisoned and thereby prevented from going about in the different places, according to my former custom; yet as long as the breath is in my nostrils, the word of God shall not be imprisoned in me; but it shall preach that which is true and right in the ears of the hearers."

But the Eutychian party also imagined that he would agree with them; and they came together to him, and entered into discusssion with him. And in like manner, contrary to their expectation, he showed them to be in agreement with Valentinus, and Manes, and Marcion; and that their heresy was a wicked one, worse even than that of Paul of Samosata, and Apollinaris, and Nestorius. And so they, in their turn, departed from him, being condemned by him.

And because they laid one affliction after another upon him, his soul also continued steadfast in the good fight.

While there he met with some writings of John the Rhetorician from Alexandria, which were full of false doctrine and very defective, and it is a heresy; and he exposed the man and anathematised him. And having finished his course, and contended in the fight, and kept his faith, at length he died. And departing from the prison, he went to be with Christ our Lord. And he left the example of courage to the believers.

Chapter X

The tenth chapter gives a record of the heresy of John the Rhetorician of Alexandria; and how it was rejected and anathematised

John was an adherent of Palladius the Alexandrian sophist, and was second to him; and for that reason he was called the Rhetorician; because that next to sophistry comes rhetoric, and therefore by that name the philosopher is surnamed.26

This man, in the days of Proterius who succeeded Dioscorus, saw that the whole city of Alexandria hated Proterius, some in consequence of their zeal for the faith, and others because they had been plundered and persecuted by him, with the object of making them agree to the Synod and accept the Tome. He then sought to ingratiate himself with the people, and to present a fine appearance, and to collect money for himself, and to be celebrated with this empty glory. And not having read the Holy Scriptures, and not understanding the meaning of their mysteries, and not having exercised himself in the writings of the ancient doctors of the holy Church, and not knowing what he was saying, or that about which he was contending, he was puffed up to write a sort of proof that, after the manner of a seed, God the Word was wrapped up in the body; and that He suffered in His own Nature, if indeed He suffered at all. But he denied that the Word was united to a human body; and he would not confess the natures from which One Christ appeared. But he prepared and collected words, saying, "It can by no means be called a nature, as indeed without the seed of a man in the Virgin the Incarnation took place." And he said, "Therefore Christ was neither by her nor from her." And he did not agree with the doctors of the Church, who declare that the human nature was united to God the Word, and that He became man.

And with vain words such as these he used to chatter; and he also wrote books. And in these he was self-contradictory; sometimes agreeing with Apollinaris, sometimes with Eutyches; and again, stating what was quite new. And because he was in doubt about the subject of his writings, lest they should be reviled,27 he did not subscribe his books with his own name. But at one time he wrote the name of Theodosius, the bishop of Jerusalem, upon one; and again, the name of Peter the Iberian upon another; that even the believers might be deceived by them and accept them.

But they say, that on one occasion, Peter the Iberian met with one of them, which had been written in his own name, in a certain monastery; and when he took it and read it he was full of indignation, and he anathematised the man who wrote it. And not there alone, but also in Alexandria, and in Palestine, and in Syria, both he and Theodosius anathematised the writings of this man.

Chapter XI

The eleventh chapter tells how John the Silentiarius was sent by the king, after the death of Dioscorus at Gangra, to exhort the Alexandrians to be united to Proterius

But when the report of the death of Dioscorus reached the Alexandrians, there was great trouble and sorrow. And after his death, on account of the love that they had for him, they proclaimed him as a living man, and his name was set in the Diptych. But let no man even of those, whose endeavour it is to revile what is not done in exact order, find fault.

But the believing party were desirous of appointing a bishop instead of Dioscorus. However, they were afraid of the threats of Marcian the king; for he was sending letters in every direction, and fulminations against all who would not agree to the Synod and receive the Tome. For so it was, that when he heard of the men of Alexandria, and of their intention to appoint a bishop for themselves after the death of Dioscorus, he sent John, the chief of the Silentiarii, with a letter from himself exhorting the Alexandrians to be united to Proterius.

And this John was of the same mind as the king, and he was an astute man. And when he came and saw the crowd, the numbers of monks arrayed in chastity, and possessing readiness of speech in defence of the faith, and also the strong body of the common people who were believers, with whom he had to deal, he was astounded, and said, "I am ready, if the Lord will, to inform the king and to plead with him on your behalf." And he received from them a petition— which gave information concerning their faith; and concerning all that happened to them at the hands of Proterius; and concerning the impious conduct of the man, and his wickedness, and the Church property which he expended upon vanity—written at length in words which I omit to reproduce here, lest I should be tedious to the reader.

And when John returned to the king and told him about these matters, he said to him, "We sent you, indeed, to persuade and exhort the Egyptians to obey our will: but you have returned to us, not according as we wished, since we find you an Egyptian." However, when he perceived the things that were written about Proterius, in the petition which the monks sent, he blamed the pride and the craftiness of the man. And while he was occupied with this matter, he died, having reigned six years and a half.

But Morian28 also, who reigned four years along with him, died.

And after him, Anthemius, and Severus, and Olybrius received the kingdom. And one year after, Leo the First was associated with them. So that the lives of these four made up seven years.

Chapter XII

The twelfth chapter tells about Anthemius, and Severus, and Olybrius, and Leo; who reigned together and in succession, seven years

When Anthemius had reigned five years he was killed by Ricimer. And Severus, having reigned one year with him, died. And Olybrius, who reigned after Severus along with Anthemius for one year, died. And Leo the First also died, having reigned with Anthemius for three years, and two years after.

In the first year of Leo indeed, Antioch was overturned by the earthquakes which occurred; and there was also a great fire. And in the second year of his reign, Sulifos, the Gothic tyrant, was killed. And in the third year of his reign, Aspar the general and his sons were killed.

But there is in this third Book and in its chapters, which are written above, a period of thirteen and a half years. And it is made up in the following manner:—Of Marcian and Morian six years and a half; and of Anthemius, and Severus, and Olybrius, and Leo the First, who reigned in succession and together, seven years.

And this period begins from the third year of the three hundred and fifth Olympiad, and it ends in the three hundred and eighth Olympiad.

[Note to the online edition: footnotes have been moved to the end. Footnotes concerned only with bits of Syriac and Greek have been omitted because of the time it would take to transcribe it.]

  1. 2 Here the text adds, "The thirteenth Book tells about the accession of Marcian, and about the council of bishops which came to Chalcedon, and what took place in the council until the public address of the king to the bishops."
  2. 1 Evag. ii. 4, 18; Liberat. 13.
  3. 2 ... " Eupraxius of illustrious and Christ-loving memory, who was one of the eunuchs of the royal bedchambers," das Leben des Severus (ed. Spanuth), p. 28.
  4. 2 Jo. Eph. ap. "Dion." See Introd. p. 4, note.
  5. 3 Here an extract in Cod. Rom. begins.
  6. 4 Evag. ii. 2.
  7. 6 Evag. i. 7.
  8. 3 Evag. ii. 2; Liberat. 13.
  9. 4 Jo. Eph. (Anecd. Syr. ii. p. 363). See Introd. l.c.
  10. 5 Here extract in Cod. Rom. ends.
  11. 1 Mansi, vol. vii. p. 104.
  12. 3 Ps. xxii. 22.
  13. 2 2 Cor. viii. 9.
  14. 3 Here an extract in Cod. Rom. begins.
  15. 4 The faith (Cod. Rom.).
  16. 1 Jo. Eph. Fr. (Anecd. Syr. ii. p. 363). See Introd. l.c.
  17. 4 Here an extract in Cod. Rom. ends.
  18. 7 Mansi, vol. vii. p. 132.
  19. 1 Evag. ii. 5; Liberat. 14.
  20. 2 Here begins an extract in Cod. Rom. which continues to end of chap. viii.
  21. 4 Or, "became exasperated."
  22. 1 Evag. ii. 5.
  23. 4 Evag. ii. 5.
  24. 3 Evag. ii. 5.
  25. 1 Ps. lxxix. I.
  26. 1 An exact translation of this passage is impossible. I have tried to give what appears to be the sense of it.
  27. 1 Or, remain unknown.
  28. 3 I.e. Majorian.

    This text was transcribed by Roger Pearse, Ipswich, UK, 2002. Greek text is rendered using the Scholars Press SPIonic font, free from here.

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